Monday, December 16, 2013

Vergerius the Younger (16th Century)

Vergerius . . . was commissioned to go to the diet at Worms, where he made a speech on the unity and peace of the church, which he printed and circulated -- and in which he principally insisted on the arguments against a national council.

On his return to Rome, the pope intended to have rewarded his services with a cardinal's hat, but changed his purpose on hearing it insinuated that a leaning towards Lutheranism was perceptible in [Vergerius] from his long residence in Germany.

The pope, however, was not more offended than Vergerius was surprised at this charge, which he knew to be absolutely groundless; yet this circumstance, probably arising from personal malice or envy, proved ultimately the means of Vergerius's conversion.

With a view to repel the charge of heresy, he now sat down to write a book, the title of which was to be Adversus apostatas Germaniae, against the apostates of Germany; but as this led him to a strict investigation of the protestant doctrines, as found in the works of their ablest writers with a strong conviction that they were in the right.

He then immediately went to confer with his brother, John Baptist Vergerius, bishop of Pola, in Istra, who was exceedingly perplexed at his change of sentiment, but on his repeated entreaties, joined [his brother] in examining the disputed points, particularly the article of justification, and the result was, that both prelates soon preached to the people of Istria the doctrines of the reformation, and even dispersed the New Testament among them in the vulgar tongue [i.e. the people's common language - which in this case was probably Croatian].

The Inquisition, as well as the monks, soon became alarmed at this, and Vergerius was obliged to seek refuge in Mantua, under the protection of cardinal Herbules Gonzaga, who had been his intimate friend; but Gonzaga was after a short time obliged by remonstrances from Rome to withdraw his protection, and [Vergerius] finally went to Padua, and thence to the Grisons, where he preached the Gospel for several years, until invited by the duke of Wirtemberg to Tubingen, and there he passed the remainder of his days.

From The General Biographical Dictionary by Alexander Chalmers.

Vergerius the Elder (14th Century)

P. P. Vergerius the Elder (1370-1444) was a teacher at Florence, Bologna, and Padua. He was present at the Council of Constance, and later worked for the Emperor Sigismund. Soon after 1400, he wrote the first important Renaissance treatise on education for Ubertino, the son of Francesco Carrara, lord of Padua. Printed here, it represented a sort of humanist program. It does discuss the medieval trivium and quadrivium, along with the traditional disciplines of medicine, law and theology. But the stress is on the newer "liberal studies," of history, moral philosophy, rhetoric, and literature. In his de ingenuis moribus, he writes:
We call those studies liberal which are worthy of a free man; those studies by which we attain and practice virtue and wisdom; that education which calls forth, trains and develops those highest gifts of body and of mind which ennoble men, and which are rightly judged to rank next in dignity to virtue only. For to a vulgar temper gain and pleasure are the one aim of existence, to a lofty nature, moral worth and fame.

It is, then, of the highest importance that even from infancy this aim, this effort, should constantly be kept alive in growing minds. For I may affirm with fullest conviction that we shall not have attained wisdom in our later years unless in our earliest we have sincerely entered on its search. Nor may we for a moment admit, with the unthinking crowd, that those who give early promise fail in subsequent fulfillment. This may, partly from physical causes, happen in exceptional cases. But there is no doubt that nature has endowed some children with so keen, so ready an intelligence, that without serious effort they attain to a notable power of reasoning and conversing upon grave and lofty subjects, and by aid of right guidance and sound learning reach in manhood the highest distinction.

On the other hand, children of modest powers demand even more attention, that their natural defects may be supplied by art. But all alike must in those early years, Dum faciles animi iuvenum, dum mobilis aetas, i.e. whilst the mind is supple, be inured to the toil and effort of learning. Not that education, in the broad sense, is exclusively the concern of youth. Did not Cato think it honorable to learn Greek in later life? Did not Socrates, greatest of philosophers, compel his aged fingers to the lute

Our youth of to-day, it is to be feared, is backward to learn; studies arc accounted irksome. Boys hardly weaned begin to claim their own way, at a time when every art should be employed to bring them under control and attract them to grave studies. The Master must judge how far he can rely upon emulation, rewards, encouragement; bow far be must have recourse to sterner measures.

Too much leniency is objectionable; so also is too great severity, for we must avoid all that terrifies a boy. In certain temperaments-those in which a dark complexion denotes a quiet but strong personality-restraint must be cautiously applied. Boys of this type are mostly highly gifted and can bear a gentle hand. Not seldom it happens that a finely tempered nature is thwarted by circumstances, such as poverty at home, which compels a promising youth to forsake learning for trade: though, on the other hand, poverty is less dangerous to lofty instincts than great wealth. Or again, parents encourage their sons to follow a career traditional in their family, which may divert them from liberal studies: and the customary pursuits of the city in which we dwell exercise a decided influence on our choice.

So that we may say that a perfectly unbiased decision in these matters is seldom possible, except to certain select natures, who by favor of the gods, as the poets have it, are unconsciously brought to choose the right path in life. The myth of Hercules, who, in the solitude of his wanderings, learned to accept the strenuous life and to reject the way of self-indulgence, and so attain the highest, is the significant setting of this profound truth. For us it is the best that can befall, that either the circumstances of our life, or the guidance and exhortations of those in charge of us, should mould our natures whilst they are still plastic.

Saturday, December 14, 2013

Catechesis: The Layman's Bible

But the Question is Not About Scripture (for Biblical Scriptures are Received by Both Sides), But the Point in Controversy is This: What is the True, Ancient, and Catholic Sense of the Holy Scriptures? This [is] the Whole Controversy: How Can a Common Person and Layman Decide?

    It is easy to settle this controversy. For since Holy Scripture is a light shining in darkness and enlightening the eyes (Ps 19:8; 2 Ptr 1:19), it sets forth and interprets itself in clear words. For one and the same doctrine is repeated in Scripture in many places and is gradually explained more clearly for this reason, that one might more surely and certainly seek the true sense by comparing passages.

    Besides, God Himself has drawn together into a brief summary from the entire Holy Scripture summary heads of the heavenly doctrine, as much as necessary for everyone unto salvation. The Greeks aptly gave this summary the name katechesis. But the old Germans had an even better term for it: Layman’s Bible. If, then, a layman understands Scripture according to those chief parts of catechesis, the true meaning and interpretation will in no wise escape him.

    Are People to Be Exhorted to Read, Hear, and Meditate on that Word, Both Written and Oral (as It is Commonly Called)?

    By all means. For Scripture can make us wise unto salvation, and it is profitable for doctrine, patience, comfort, admonition, reproof, correction, and instruction in righteousness, that a man might be equipped and prepared for every good work. Rom. 15:4; 1 Cor. 10:11; 2 Tim. 3:15–17.

    And that Word, preached and heard, is the power of God unto salvation to everyone who believes, Rom. 1:16. It is likewise the immortal seed by which people are reborn. 1 Pet. 1:23. On hearing this Word of God people were pricked in the heart. Acts 2:37. And Paul declared that faith is [comes] by hearing the Word of God. Rom. 10:17 And Ps. 1, 19, 77, and 119 speak very aptly of meditation on the divine Word.

Chemnitz, M., & Poellot, L. (1999). Ministry, Word, and Sacraments: An Enchiridion, p. 42.

Friday, December 13, 2013

High Church

"High church," as it has come to be known, aspires to convey the majesty of God by the grandeur of man. Each pious motion and every liturgical movement stands as a metaphor striving to communicate reverence in the presence of God's holiness and to instill awe in the face of God's glory.

Neither golden grandeur nor reverent metaphor, however, could hope to surpass what a broken and contrite heart experiences when forgiveness, life and salvation are proclaimed in the name of Jesus. No pomp and circumstance could ever be fabricated to achieve that which comes in the humble and intimate surroundings where Word and Sacrament are simply and rightly administered according to Christ's institution, unadorned by the frills and allegories of man.

Thursday, December 12, 2013

"Accordingly, we believe, teach, and confess that our righteousness before God consists in this, that God forgives us our sins by sheer grace, without any works, merit, or worthiness of our own, in the past, at present, or in the future, that he gives us and reckons to us the righteousness of Christ’s obedience and that, because of this righteousness, we are accepted by God into grace and regarded as righteous." (Ep FC, III)

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

"They chant psalms, not in order to learn or pray, but for the sake of the rite, as if this work were a required act of worship, or for the sake of financial reward. Many among us celebrate the Lord’s Supper every Lord’s day after they are instructed, examined, and absolved. The children chant the Psalms in order to learn them; the people also sing in order either to learn or to pray. Among our opponents there is no catechesis of children whatever, even though the canons prescribe it. Among us, pastors and ministers of the church are required to instruct and examine the youth publicly, a custom that produces very good results." (Ap AC XV) [Click this hypertext link for an interesting article about children chanting and moral formulation.]